International Journal of Economics and Law
Volume 7 | No. 21
SIGNIFICANCE OF ACCOUNTING DATA FOR MEDIUM SIZED AGRICULTURAL FARM IN THE INCREASE OF PROFITABILITY OF BUSINESS
Aleksandra Gajdobranski, Dragana Latkovic, Vera Krmpot
The main goal of the research in this paper is to use the scientific methods to understand the importance of accounting data for medium-sized farms located in Vojvodina. The set task of the research required the application of various methodological procedures, where the research is mostly based on the so-called desk research, and the collection of available primary and secondary data. The research was carried out for the period from 2007 to 2017, with special reference to the calculation of the price of wheat and corn of the genus 2017. In addition to scientific methods, tables will also be used in the presentation of summarized data for the most important crop cultivation that will be processed through the profit and loss account, as well as determining the costs by calculation with rent and with¬out rent in order to determine the ultimate financial result. Based on these quantitative calculations, a review of prices of wheat and maize from 2007 to 2017 was carried out.
DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES BETWEEN PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN SERBIA AND FINLAND
The Finnish education system is one of the best in the world. In measuring the success of their education systems, many countries compare themselves to Finland. Quite a few countries have tried to copy a part or all of this education system into the education systems of their countries. In general, it was not a proper way, because every country has its own specificities and it is precisely these that should be a factor in developing the education system of every country. This also applies to our education system in Serbia. The paper analyzes the importance of education and science for the devel¬opment of society, specificities of the Finnish education system, extent of differences and similarities between the primary education systems in Finland and in Serbia.
LEGAL LIMITATIONS OF FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION IN MEDIA
The paper will base on an attempt to bring the formal statement “there is no definition of freedom” to the realm of legal recognition and the disclosure of its legal concerns. Aware of the fact that a requirement of defining freedom can be overly unsound, just like an attempt to define a hu¬man being, we are drawn by the idea of summarizing these two requirements and putting them in the same plane. We could start from the attempt to recognize terms “human being” and “freedom” as synonyms, but we would bring ourselves to the blind side. Randomly speaking, terms “freedom” and “definition” are mutually exclusive and, to a light-minded opserver, this attempt can seem allogical in it’s essence and, at the very least, without logical connection between the terms and thus futile. But if we recognize the term “freedom” as the very possibility of autonomus and independent action, then the self-determination of a human being to be free can connotate an unconstrained and un-imprisioned human being. It has been established that the state of freedom is a birth wright of every selfconscious and reason-endowed human being, but also that every relation of an individual with a society is burdened with a certain degree of loss of the very same freedom. Following this path, we take upon ourselves the not-so-easy-task task to talk about the legal restrictions on freedom of expression in the public and the media as one of many aspects of freedom.
LEGAL THEORY AND PHILOSOPHY CHALLENGED BY THE OMNIPOTENCE OF THE STATE
In this text, the author tries to reactivate some of the key legal and theoretical insights of Montesquieu and Weber for understanding the modern functioning of the State as an entity which, in relation to the ancient concept, has erupted into its own opposite. Both thinkers, each in his own way and using the original typology, warn of the possibility of a distortion of a State which, instead of the means to establish a fund between the “subjects” of a community, becomes a goal for itself. The author points to the relevance of above-mentioned thinkers’ indication to the necessity of finding such modes that would limit the authority so that it is not abused. The author in the article insists on this possibil¬ity which, according to his view, represents the essential characteristic of the State (post) modern era. The author concludes that the State is completely abolished of the entelechy aura of a man’s companion on the path of improvement: it has become a power emanation, a mechanized apparatus that serves as a mere instrument for the single motive of achieving and maintaining the force of pressure and the suffocation of individual freedoms and rights.
BANK OBLIGATIONS REGARDING FIGHT AGAINST MONEY LAUNDRING
Petrevska Ljupka, Petrevska Ivana, Bulatovic Marija, Petrevska Miroslava
The development of the modern society, accompanied by the changes, which the industrial revolution with the new technologies, scientific discoveries and technical innovations brought with itself, the changes which globalization brings with it, has inevitably influenced on the shaping of a new banking organization which had to adjust to the modern social changes, not only in an organizational and functional sense, but in ethical as well. Expansion of international trade relations and the emer-gence of multinational (international) companies, which have expanded their business activities out¬side national economy borders, occurred in the second half of the 20th century. Forming such economic subjects which were, for the purpose of maximizing profits, oriented towards global international markets, since national markets became too small, had far-reaching consequences on the international economic flows, and thus onto the national banking systems. However, the expansion of international business relations and multinational companies brought with it the risk of conducting criminal activi¬ties which make exceptionally large sums of money, and which are illegitimately acquired possessions. Money laundering is carried out through banks, whereby legalizing illegitimately acquired money and in that way it is included into the legal financial flows. The fight against money laundering has always exclusively been in the jurisdiction of law enforcement. However, bank’s business activities practice in the XXI century has shown that the bank is the major place where one gains information on money laundering as a criminal activity category. Banks should develop principles for meeting clients, and according to that they should develop and form their own special registration standards and admission of client accounts, taking into consideration the risky profile of each client.
GLOBAL CONTEMPORARY TERRORISM ON THE PLATFORM OF IDENTITY
Ivan Predraga Petrovic
Today, when the positive and negative consequences of globalization are united, the ref¬ormation of “old values” strives for the creation of unique identities. These processes in themselves contain multiple challenges, which may call into question personal, collective, religious, cultural and national identity. The basis of personal identity always has the need to show its limits to the world and people. Its organization is the perception of itself as a different being, in accordance with itself, and separate from others. It shows the relative consistency in behavior and experiencing oneself. It slowly changes throughout life, and it reflects the stages through which the individual passes. The human be¬ing strives to establish identity in the collective identity as well in order to find the meaning of life. The religious segment of the identity combines national affiliation and the denomination as an inseparable dyad. Cultural identity, a part of a self-consciousness of a group emerges and develops depending on the criteria that this group establishes in relations with other social groups. In the end, the need to define someone as a member of his state is in the personal identity segment, with multiple roots. The danger of losing identity in globalization processes gives terrorism a new dimension. This kind of ter¬rorism does not know cross-border and regional elements; it is global, more targeted, unpredictable, more organized, and its diffusion gives a new dimension to threats. Given that modern terrorism has these characteristics and that its consequences are multiplied, the essence of this paper explains the deep dimension of terrorism in which motivational terrorist base lies the acquisition, preservation and defense of identity on the basis of religion, culture and nationality, and the defense of individual and/or collective identity in terroristic activity, and caused by the negative consequences of globalization.
COMMON LAW MARRIAGE IN THE LIGHT OF POSSIBILITIES OF LEGAL INHERITANCE
This paper deals with the institution of the common law marriage. The author gives an overview of the position of the common law marriage in Family Law and compares it with the status of the common law marriage in the Inheritance law. The author speaks of the justification of introducing into the legal succession order of a spousal partner. Many extra-marital partners do not think about their rights because they perceive an extramarital community as a provisional way toward establish¬ing a marriage. The paper presents the features of the extramarital community, the regulation of the out-of-wedlock community in comparative law and the reasons for changing and supplementing the legitimate position of the extra-marital partner.
EXIT TESTS AND INTERVIEWS OF OUTGOING WORKERS AS THE INSTRUMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING WITH REGARD TO SERBIA
Dragana Radosavljevic, Aleksandar Andjelkovic, Milan Radosavljevic
It is known that personnel processes are very complex and that their designing is different in relation to other organizational resources and potentials. Each element of this process is significant, because if deformation occurs in one, serious consequences are often caused with incalculable consequences on other elements. It turns out that the greatest attention in management literature and business practice is dedicated to recruitment, selection, acceptance and training of staff, because it starts from the view that these elements directly affect the business results. In this context, these processes are theoretically processed, and various techniques have been developed for its efficient implementation, such as: biography analysis, admission tests, interviews, problem solving, trial work, and so called unconventional techniques, such as: polygraphic and graphological testing, use of astrology, etc. The goal is to make the right selection and choose the right person for a specific job. Contrary to the above, the last element of the personnel process is conditionally stated “dispatch” of personnel to which the management literature has not dedicated even minimal attention, although this element is significant as others, because each admission is followed by a certain departure and there is no admission without leaving, i.e. departure without admission. Anyone who has been admitted must be adequately discharged, and those who leave must have previously been admitted, which in the best way indicating the causative consequential connections and relationships of the above phenomena. The reasons for these should be sought in reasoning in order not to have to deal with those who depart at any ground, because they are past, and the one who deals with the past as a rule loses the future, especially if they leave with their own will. However, leaving or departing a company on any ground must be subject to specific analysis, whereby different tools or techniques can be used, such as: exit tests, written reports, interviews, engagement of special agencies and specialists who can successfully test the reasons for people leaving, the satisfaction of the outgoing people, etc. This is a very efficient instrument of organizational learning, because, on the basis of the output documentation, there are possible mistakes in the management or organizational structure to be perceived, especially when it comes to the large fluctuation of employees. Diagnosing the causes why employees leave the company, or dissatisfied leave by the force of law, or why they leave with their own will from the organization, is a far more sophisticated way of learning and improving the organization than any other element of the personnel process. The aim of the paper is to point out the instruments and techniques that can be used in researching the “dispatching” of employees from organizations, as the final stage in the personnel process, in order to eliminate the reasons why employees leave, or causes of dissatisfaction if employees leave with their own will or by the will of employers and management, i.e. to point out an efficient way of organizational learning based on the analysis of the output documentation.
PERSONAL INCOME TAX POLICY
Tihomir Janjicek, Branko Tesanovic
Personal income tax policy generally does not make distinction regarding people with disability on the one side, and non-productive employed persons. To prove “non-discriminatory” ap¬proach in personal income tax policy, standard non-linear model and the commodity taxation frame¬work has been used. In this analysis have been used also two assumptions. The first one is differential understanding of taste of leisure regarding person with disability and ordinary person. The second is meaning of expected limitation in activity for persons with disability. Leisure could be dependable on commodity combination and on income tax redistribution from early to latter taxation. To avoid problems with financial crisis from 2008 analysist was concentrated in period before 1975-2005. Re¬garding countries located in western Balkan they are still in the beginning of diversified personal in¬come tax policy related to unemployed people with disability and employed people without disability. The main source of income for government budget is still VAT. Currently VAT in Serbia is 20% and in Croatia 25%. These percentages are extremely high compared to province of Ontario where is HST “only” 13% and HST cold be accepted as VAT in EU and all other countries in Europe. European coun¬tries still hast to make major reform in tax policy and provide for government budget stronger impact of personal income tax, than any tax related to the sale price.
PERSONALITY TRAITS AND FACEBOOK USAGE
The paper presented is a review article focused on the current findings in relation to per¬sonality traits and the use of Facebook. Facebook is the second most visited website after Google (El¬lison, Steinfield, & Lampe, 2007; Ryan & Xenos, 2011) and the users are active on average between ten minutes and two hours a day (Kalpidon, Costin, & Morris, 2011; Moore & McElroy, 2012). In certain aspects, FB is significantly different from other social networks, because it is characterized by offline to online trend – an individual meets the majority of friends on Facebook in real life, and subsequently adds them to Facebook (Ross et al., 2009). In the five-factor model of personality traits (McCrae & Costa, 1992), Extroversion was reported to be positively related to the use of Facebook, and that it is the most important predictor of the use of Facebook for adult networking (Corea et al., 2010). Although the introverts had fewer online friends and were less inclined to online self-promo¬tion than extroverts, the introverts experience Facebook more attractive than traditional methods of communication and spend more time on Facebook compared to extroverts. The results of the study (La Sala, Skues, & Grant, 2014) suggest that Collaborativeness is the most powerful predictor of the number of accessions, the so-called log in to Facebook profile for students. Openness is registered as a negative predictor of using Share option and Conscientiousness as a negative predictor of using Com¬ment option (Lee, Ann & Kim, 2014). Outside the five-factor model, the personality trait Narcissism is associated with the use of FB. Buffardi and Campbell (2008) suggest that FB is an excellent platform for narcissistic self-regulation. In addition, there are findings (Carpenter, 2012; Ong et al., 2011) that Narcissism is highly correlated with the frequency of changing profile image and status.
CREATING A CREATIVE CLIMATE FOR CHANGE MANAGEMENT IN KNOWLEDGE AGE
In order to achieve a successful business and compete successfully in today’s marketplace, organizations should treat and pay attention to knowledge, which is the core of their competence, as to other strategy-an irreplaceable resource and asset. Knowledge Management (KM) essentially presents an intellectual property management – as a resource in a way that provides the company a competitive advantage. While KM has a lot to offer, the implementation of KM process is not so simple, such as installing a software package. The successful implementation of KM requires long-term commitment and dedication of management, leadership that supports and complements the corporate culture, dedi¬cated, well-trained employees and managers, the use and application of information technology in the right way. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of creating a creative climate for change management in the knowledge age.
LEAKING OF CONFIDENTIAL PERSONAL INFORMATION
The aim of this paper is to point to the significance of corporate information security and empirical study of leaking confidential personal information in 2017 in the world, for commercial and non-commercial state organizations, which were caused by malicious or neglecting activities of employees or external attackers and their percentage share according to the criteria determined. The study was based on database created based on public announcement on the cases of leaking of confi-dential information. The criteria includes less than 1% of cases of the assumed total number of leaking. The criteria of this categorization of leaking were chosen in such a manner that category studying con¬tains enough elements in order for the research field formation to enable the theoretical observation of the sample and the results and trends observed the generalization of the conclusion. The results have shown that in 2017 there were registered 1505 cases of information leaking, of which 965,9 million of personal. 32,2% was caused by external ill-wisher and 65,4% the employees. Personal data and financial information are the most frequent objects of the attack – 90,8%. The networks are the most frequent channels of leaking information– 45,6%. The greatest percentage of information leaking is in commercial medium companies and the most attractive economy branch for the attacks is in the field of high technologies, trade and transport. The data of trade, transport and high technology organiza¬tions are usually attacked from the outside, while financial, medical and educational organizations are as a rule attacked by the insiders. For the theft of the data, less and less are used electronic mail, portable media, services for rapid messages because the control of these channels is big. The sources of hackers are closed uncontrolled channels whose protection systems either do not work or they are not efficient.