International Journal of Economics and Law
Volume 10 | No. 29
SECURITY OF SUPPLY IN THE LIGHT OF TREATY ESTABLISHING THE ENERGY COMMUNITY
Contracting Parties of the Treaty establishing the Energy Community committed themselves to adopt acquis communautaire of the European Union in the energy field. As communautaire regulations are constantly evolving, Articles 24 and 25 of the Treaty provide the possibility of adaptation, i.e. harmonization with the development of the European Community legislation. Thereby, Contracting Parties have a possibility to harmonize their legislation in the energy field and other related fields constantly bearing in mind the specific situation and options for each Contracting Party.
Regular security of supply is safeguarded by sufficient quantities of energy in the market, energy sources reserves, energy market development, safe operation of energy network as well as by the creation of conditions for each entity to have an opportunity to become an energy consumer in case this is what one opts for.
The Energy Law (“Official Gazette of RS”, No. 145/14, 95/18 – other Law) created the basis for safeguarding operational energy source reserves and mandatory natural gas reserves which will certainly have effect to the security of customers supply in case of disruptions in the energy and energy sources market.
CONTEMPORARY TENDENCIES IN SPORTS MANAGEMENT
The paper presents contemporary leadership styles in sports, through a theoretical overview of contemporary authors, as well as an empirical study of the leadership style of coaches in team and individual sports in Serbia. The aim of this paper is to determine the characteristics of the management of top coaches in team and individual sports in Serbia, and to compare both groups, find common ground and differences, to empirically show the tendencies of management in sports. The study included 54 team sports coaches and 91 individual sports coaches. Two questionnaires were used. The first questionnaire measured the coach’s self-perception. It consists of 40 questions, a five-point Likert scale. The second questionnaire was derived from situational management theory. It is based on 12 situations that can occur in the work environment. The result of the test is the predominant leadership style used by the coach. A comparison of the results showed that coaches of team sports are much less democratic in their leadership and much more directive than coaches of individual sports. Coaches of individual sports more often use a collaborative leadership style than coaches of team sports..
MUNICIPAL POLICE IN THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA
In this paper authors analyse the place and role of law enforcement agencies called Municipal police in the Republic of Serbia. The authors also deals with historical development of Municipal police in Republic of Serbia, the reasons that made the formation of this organization inevitable, as well as with legal basis, organization and control of Municipal police.
They paid special attention to the analys of public trust in the Municipal police in the Republic of Serbia and points out that Citizens of the Republic of Serbia generally have no trust in the institutions. Research conducted by Ipsos Strategic Marketing in November last year within the project Argus Beta news agency supported by the EU Delegation in Serbia, showed that public trust in most institutions was below 50%.
In this general context, the conclusions regarding the trust of citizens in municipal police can only be drawn indirectly, due to the fact that this is a relatively new institution, not uniformly set, and, in particular, due to the lack of research.
According to the evaluations of some of the surveyed executives, municipal police had no support from the citizens.The citizens were ready to assist municipal police only to the extent of the solution to their current problem, but as far as the cooperation and support of the system were concerned there was neither willingness nor interest for it.
In the end, the conclusion is that citizens are gradually getting used to the presence of communal police in their cities and municipalities, although there are many unknowns related to the functioning of communal police, which should be overcome through education of both
citizens and better training of communal police.
LEGAL ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE SECURITY CONCEPT OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
The patience and perseverance of the countries of the European Union on the path of their own and world security is reflected in the adoption of documents, through decades of creation.
The entire system of the project called the European Union was accompanied by the situations of the creation of such a system, its changes, uneven speed of organization and uneven speed of creating elements of the Union, as well as the impact from outside and inside on the Union itself.
The European Union has developed at the level of member states, at the level of their mutual relations and at the level of supranationality. This development has become more and more complicated over time.
Today, there is a minimal possibility that the member states of the European Union would endanger security through conflicts or wars, that they would not worry about the basic goals of the Union in the first place, and especially the goals of the Common Foreign and Security Policy. However, there is a limitation to this policy contained in the capacity constraints, especially at the international level.
Regardless of that, the European Union is continuously striving to become a serious participant, which means strengthening the security identity, and especially the political and military components of the EU.
This paper analyzes the development of the creation of European security from the middle of the last century and in the first decade of this century. It points to changes in the creation and development of European security and defense policy.
CERTAIN MACROECONOMIC INDICATORS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE SERBIAN MARKET
The aim of this paper is to analyze some macroeconomic parameters with special reference to the changes in the stock exchange index at the beginning of 2020 caused by the Corona virus (COVID-19), which is spreading globally and affecting the world economy. A significant contribution to the work will be the prediction of the impact of the global crisis caused by the pandemic on the Serbian market. In addition to the analysis of macroeconomic trends, we will present the impact of financial derivatives and their advantage in providing a certain flexibility, which is necessary for investors to protect themselves from financial risks. The use of financial derivatives increases the value of the company and reduces expensive external financing.
The world pandemic is the cause of the fall in the prices of property and goods, which began to fall rapidly, which in turn caused the fall of stock exchange indexes, the price of oil and oil derivatives. The expansion of the pandemic caused the fastest decline in shares in the history of stock exchange trading.
Investors are increasingly interested in the impact of the pandemic, what the macroeconomic effects will be and how it will affect the business of companies. It is expected that during 2020, there will be a decline in income in banks and other sectors. Financial institutions will have large losses due to rising unemployment. The impact of declining consumer and business demand will weaken the credit ratings of many countries. Due to the pandemic and the closure of borders, there has been a decrease in revenues in branches, such as tourism and trade. Risk aversion caused capital outflows, changes in financing conditions and caused changes in exchange rates.
INSTRUMENTS OF HUMAN RIGHTS PROTECTION IN THE LEGAL SYSTEM OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA
This paper will discuss the exercise and protection of basic human rights guaranteed by the Constitution as the highest legal act. The introductory part of the paper includes a summary of the concept of human rights and their protection, while the second section refers to the instruments of human rights protection in the legal system of the Republic of Serbia before administrative bodies, judicial bodies and the Constitutional Court, as well as the Protector of Citizens as an independent institution.