International Journal of Economics and Law
Na osnovu člana 14, Pravilnika o kategorizaciji i rangiranju naučnih časopisa International Journal of Economics and Law je u kategoriji M23
Volume 11 | No. 31
MAN IN THE FOURTH INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
Technological changes, aided by the great crisis of the Covid – 19 pandemic that hit the world on a global level, have fundamentally changed the design on a global, but also on a national, ie organizational level. Technology is advancing at a rapid pace, and the pandemic crisis is still not under control, which increases risks and stability in the spheres of life and business. Changes are still happening at such a speed that it is difficult to follow them, let alone adapt them. Uncertainty in unstable living and working conditions is increasing, which imposes the need for the emergence of special scientific disciplines, and especially risk management in various fields.
Technology has taken over many functions of man, with a tendency to question his place and role in social and business life. IT experts are already talking about neural networks, smart machines, intelligent rooms, and even smart cities.
The fourth industrial revolution is widely present in developed countries, and the crisis of the Covid – 19 pandemic accelerated the process of de – alienation, redesigned jobs and jeopardized the survival of individual professions, but also traditional organizations, jobs and the life of the population as a whole.
In these circumstances, the question arises whether the place, role and influence of man in the fourth or subsequent revolutions will be marginalized, or whether man will be excluded from business processes and what will be the relationship between people, organizational systems and countries globally .
Forecasts on these issues go in two directions. The first direction claims that in the fourth industrial revolution the place and role of man will increase, while the second approach predicts that in the fourth and subsequent revolutions the role and importance of man will decrease.
The answer to the second question, ie what will be the relationship between people in the fourth industrial revolution, is harder to predict, given that advanced, and above all information and communication technologies have dramatically changed traditional jobs, ie time, place and way of doing jobs. Here, as in the previous question, two claims are made: that the socialization of man and society will increase in the fourth industrial revolution, as opposed to the views that man will experience alienation, and that he will eventually lose one of his basic characteristics, and that is his social character.
The paper deals with the question of the place and role of man in the fourth industrial revolution, as well as human relations, and above all interpersonal relations, which in the knowledge society are considered one of the main factors of social and economic development. The aim of the paper is to try to solve the dilemma of man against intelligent machines, ie man as a social and individual being, or a robot.
A NEW EDUCATIONS STRATEGY – A NEW CHANCE OR?
The debate on the Strategy of Education in the Republic of Serbia until 2030 (SROVRS 2030), provoked numerous opposing views. The unions raise the issue of finance as a key issue, but also many others. SROVRS was done in difficult times in Serbia. In addition to the pandemic, major problems are: transition, the path to the European Union, the position of education in society and numerous reforms in all segments of society, including education. An important issue is the possibility of predicting events until 2030. time of rapid development of information and communication technologies. The new strategy prescribes, and thus should implement, numerous and major changes. The changes refer to the entire education system of Serbia, which was more focused on the past than the future. They also include primary education as primary and a very important part of that system. This paper will discuss primary education in more detail in the light of the old, but also the new Education Strategy.
WAR AS A SOURCE OF NON-SECURITY
Security as a phenomenon and a concept is a topic that is very current and important for today’s modern society. A full understanding of the process in society and the world of politics in general is inconceivable without an understanding of security and its forms and sources of threat. In the multitude of sources of security threats, war is considered very important. The peculiarity of war in the context of endangering security is reflected not only in its brutality, violence, number of victims and a wide range of negative consequences, but that war in the global context is a real cataclysm that basically affects all mankind. Due to its complexity and complexity, war, as a total social conflict and a source of insecurity, affects all spheres of socio-political life and thus leaves disastrous consequences on people, the social system and society as a whole. This paper aims to point out not only the conceptual definition of war and security, as well as historical context, but also to clearly point out the threat of war and its consequences, with special reference to these two phenomena and their relationship in today’s globalizing modern society.
FRAUD – CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGES
The author’s main attention is focused on the manifestations of fraud, which are the predominant ways of committing modern criminal activities in today’s social and economic trends. The paper will first present a wide range of such illicit activities, which will be dichotomously classified into modernized classical forms and completely new types, most often in the predominantly online environment. Among other types of this type of criminal activity, the author especially emphasizes card fraud and identity theft, emphasizing such a high degree of damage they cause to damaging legal and natural persons. The author presents the trends of fraudulent activities according to the experiences of economically developed countries, whose economic systems are stable and whose standard of living is high. In addition to the theoretical and practical approach of experts in this field, the paper will list concrete examples of modern fraud as a kind of indicator of their presence and the degree of social danger, which determine them. The key intention of the author is to point out with this paper the necessity of changing the perception of citizens towards the seemingly harmless threats of these illegal activities, to which they are continuously exposed every day in a professional and private, primarily online, environment.
SMART CITY: A CONTEMPORARY APPROACH TO INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY
The emergence and intensive development of new technologies is influencing the transformation of the paradigm of global, national, and regional economies. The intensive development of radically new technologies, especially Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) as well as the emergence of the Industry 4.0 concept, accelerated the digital transformation of the economy, public sector, and local government, but also initiated the creation and further development of the Smart City concept. With this concept, cities and regions are being transformed in the direction of achieving greater efficiency of local government, higher quality of life, reduction of energy consumption as well as reduction of the negative impact of numerous actors on the environment. The Smart City concept today represents the dominant direction of urban development, so initiatives and individual projects in the mentioned domain are increasing. These trends have led the authors of this paper to place a special focus on analyzing the role and importance of critical infrastructure development necessary for the further development of the Smart City concept as an integrated part of the sustainable development strategy.
CRIMINAL LAW ASPECTS OF MEDICAL ISSUES OF DOCTORS AND PATIENTS
Medical law confronting criminal law brings new perspective of qualifications for patients who are suffering and trying to hurt others. Other perspective is focused on doctors’ mistakes, unwilling usually. New era is seriously damaged by unconsciously dangerous virus. We must mention new disease and old danger called AIDS. People have these viruses and they do not protect themselves and do not protect others from themselves. Also, we are focused on doctors overwhelmed with numerous patients, with stress and hurry, and their mistakes with serious and less serious consequences. Nobody wants to make mistakes; somebody wants to hurt others willingly. Criminal procedural law must detect the right perpetrator and strengthen special and general prevention with the appropriate criminal sanctions. There are lot legal and medical dilemmas, and this article will try to describe, explain, and give unassuming solution with stress on future similar problems and necessity of legal remedies.
PROCESS ANALYSIS OF THE ENTREPRENEURIAL EDUCATION IN TERMS OF COVID 19 – A CASE STUDY
This paper presents the results of research in the territory of the Republic of Serbia in the field of higher education in terms of acceptance of online teaching methods. In this paper, a descriptive analysis of data collected by research work was applied. The analysis includes data related to entrepreneurship students in the territory of the Republic of Serbia in the period from March to June 2020. Students were surveyed in terms of their attitudes and results and results achieved in a specific, non-standard way of conducting the teaching process in COVID. The results of the research indicate an excellent response and acceptance of the new way of teaching. Students achieved on average more points in online teaching compared to the number of points achieved in colloquia conducted in traditional teaching. The results also indicate a very high percentage of passing in relation to the traditional way of teaching.
DECISIONS OF THE COURT OF APPEAL ON APPEAL – THE ISSUE OF THE EFFICIENCY OF THE PROCEEDINGS
Nataša Petrović Tomić
The court of appeal, in principle, decides without holding a hearing during the so-called closed session. After the appellate procedure, the court of appeal will make a decision. The types of decisions made by the appellate court do not depend on the format in which the appellate panel decided (with or without a hearing). However, the decision of the appellate court depends on how the appeal was handled. Namely, the court of appeal may find that the appeal is not suitable for deciding on the merits, then that the appeal is suitable for deciding on the merits but that it is not founded, and finally the court of appeal may find that the appeal is founded. The current Law envisages and limits the types of decisions that court of appeal can make. However, the purpose of this restriction is not to discipline the creativity of the appellate court, the meaning of the restriction is a consequence of a certain functional connection that exists between the error of the first instance court and the need to react to that error appropriately. Second-instance decisions have a different character, they can result in either modification or revocation or confirmation of the first-instance decision. If in the appellate procedure it is assessed that the appeal is founded, than the cassation or audit powers of the second instance court are manifested. Decisions of the court of appeal in the appeal procedure may be different and depend on the results of the examination of the legal remedy, whether the legal remedy is suitable to be the subject of meritorious examination and decision-making.
THE IMPACT OF GLOBAL ENERGY POLICY ON CLIMATE CHANGES
In a present that is limited by carbon concentrations and the near future that will face the serious consequences of climate change due to the overuse of fossil fuels. We cannot say for sure about the quantities of fossil fuels in the earth’s crust, and the world still relies on them. On the other hand, the need for an increasing amount of electricity is increasing every day, especially in developing countries, and lately in underdeveloped countries. The energy systems of all countries of the world are undergoing a series of transformations, and all of them are actively looking for ways to decarbonize and produce energy while maintaining market competitiveness and continuity of economic growth. This energy transformation from fossil to alternative and renewable sources is necessary and indispensable if we want to deal with climate change and the consequences caused by man. The world needs to move quickly from fossil fuels to clean, low-carbon energy systems. This would limit the increase in average global temperatures of two degrees in relation to its level before the first industrial revolution. In different parts of the world we have different climate and energy policies, which must be harmonized, unified and become a single global policy in the fight against climate change. This paper aims to show the current general energy situation in the world, as well as trends in climate change. then, current global policies to reduce CO2 emissions will be presented with the accompanying technological transformations from gray to green energy that are inevitable to develop in the IV Green Industrial Revolution. Tendencies of major economic forces in energy transformations and energy production. If we accept that climate change is a global crisis and that both the climate and energy challenges of the 21st century are the key transformative challenge we need, then worries about the amount of carbon emitted into the environment raise new problems in the fight against climate change.
The paper will only raise questions that have been asked many times so far, but will also open up some new questions: What is the future of the planet in terms of global warming and climate change? ; What is the future of fossil fuels? ; Should foil fuels be left in the earth’s crust or should we continue to use them with technological innovations and gradual transitions to existing alternatives to fossil fuels? ; Why is nuclear energy a potential alternative to fossil fuels? ; In some sources, are the negative effects of nuclear energy equated with the negative effects of renewable energy sources? ; Why is climate change a global – collective problem, so is it necessary for governments to insist on investing in the transition from a fossil fuel economy to a renewable energy economy? ; Are renewable energy sources the solution to climate change? ; How can we stay within the limits (emission limit values) and meet all the necessary climate change mitigation goals?
ATTITUDES OF MEDICAL STUDENTS ABOUT E-LEARNING
Background: E-education is becoming increasingly important at the third level of education, but it has not been successfully implemented everywhere. The success of the introduction of e-education at the faculties is significantly influenced by the readiness for this type of education, as well as the attitude of the students towards it. The intention of this research is to study the attitude of medical students towards e-education.
Methods: Quantitative research was conducted in February 2021 on a deliberate sample of 100 students of higher medical vocational schools in Serbia. The Crombach alpha coefficient was 0.966. Data were processed in SPSS. Frequency analysis, t-test for independent variables, one-way analysis of variance, correlation, factor and regression analysis were used.
Results: The advantages of e-education were mostly assessed by students who participated in three subjects in the e-classroom (p = 0.000). Attitudes towards e-education are related to students’ computer literacy (p <0.05). Three factors can explain 64.72% of the variability of the total factors of students’ attitudes towards e-education: the use of e-classroom, satisfaction with teamwork and the way of learning.
Conclusion: Respondents are not in favor of e-learning, although several factors have been identified that positively influence their attitudes towards e-learning. The results would be more significant, if the research were extended to a larger sample of respondents.
SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH THROUGH THE CLUSTER-NETWORK APPROACH TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Retraction #1 for Ljubomir Miljković, Mitja Fabjanis for a April 2021 paper at the International Journal of of Economics & Law:
Global Recession 2007-2009 not only showed the financial-economic crisis in its traditional understanding, but became a kind of announcement of the establishment of a fundamentally different world order, starting with the adaptation of economic systems through a completely new paradigm. The authors show that in the 21st century the world is transitioning to a new, networked way of doing business and living, based on dynamic horizontal interconnections, and the world economy and its subsystems are stratified into cluster network structures – more flexible than hierarchical structures and better integrated than market model. Through the ICT revolution and globalization, economies have been forced to develop on the basis of continuous renewal, ie. to have innovative economic growth that will be sustainable. The paper presents the evolution of the industrial policy model, its models, as well as the cluster-network approach according to Porter’s diamond model. The authors also presented the EU smart specialization project through its implementation in the European Union.
LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS AS A RESOLUTE RESPONSE TO GLOBAL RISKS – THEORY AND RESEARCH
Historically, within the framework of the approach to leadership qualities, as part of the already formatted theory of leadership, the search for the qualities of successful leaders first began. A priori, the attitude was that individual characteristics are characteristic only of leaders, but not of their followers, in situations where these interactions take place, and which are crucial for the organization, party or any other social structure. The personality of the leader is emphasized as a key factor in the success of this process. The theory of the great man, which prevailed in the first half of the last century, emphasizes that the key to effective leadership is that the leader has certain qualities. According to this approach to leadership, which starts from the practical actions of the leader, his personality has a central place in leadership as a process.
REDEFINING VALUE FOR CONSUMERS
High expectations of the modern consumer in terms of delivered value, require continuous research of the expected value. A significant opportunity in getting to know consumers is provided by connecting with consumers, who are increasingly involved in creating and using value and are a key source of valuable, highly personalized information. They become collaborators and active participants in the development of new products and services. By relying on the competencies of consumers (knowledge and skills) in business processes, they become co-creators of value and its users. The modern consumer actively participates in creating his own, but also the experience of other consumers. In the process of consumer transformation, it is important to encourage active dialogue, creating consumer communities, especially thanks to the use of the Internet. Given that organizational culture can be a generator or a limiting factor for the success of change, in a modern organization, special emphasis is given to creating value for consumers. An important topic within this paper is the optimization of the rate of winning and retaining consumers, as well as establishing a balance between winning and retaining consumers based on continuous review and adjustment of marketing decisions. This paper presents a traditional and modern understanding of consumers within the fundamental principles of consumer value. Emphasis is also placed on modern elements of Customer Relationship Management, which implies a designed strategy based on identifying and differentiating consumers depending on their requirements in terms of expected value. Importance is attached to marketing strategy planning and the development of a superior and flexible market offer in order to interact with consumers. Depending on the types of consumers, the importance of redefining values for consumers is emphasized. Knowledge of consumer needs by companies provides an opportunity to meet these needs in an appropriate way and thus gain an advantage over the competition.
MANAGEMENT OF PENSION SYSTEMS AT THE GLOBAL LEVEL WITH REFERENCE TO SERBIA
The pension system is one of the most important segments of any national economy. It absorbs, that is, disposes of large financial resources and is considered an important financial institution, since often through the quality of the pension system one can relatively well see the orderliness of society itself, ie the quality of living standards and general satisfaction of the population.
On the other hand, the number of pensioners on a global level is constantly increasing. The reasons are the increased life expectancy of the population, ie the improvement of living standards and quality of health care, reduced fertility, declining interest in marriage as an institutional and traditional community in which children are born, economic, demographic, health, immigration and other factors that objectively contributed an increasing number of the elderly, ie pensioners. This expressed increasing pressure on pension funds as a central institution, and thus on the status, ie life of pensioners.
The old population, in which the majority are pensioners, have more or less become vulnerable groups that face the three biggest challenges: poverty, old age and illness. Of course, loneliness could be added here, where retired men or women find it difficult to live the last days of their lives in their advanced years. Countries at the global level, especially countries in transition, are not committed to retirees and often see them as a burden to society and the state. Economic crises have also led to moral crises in which traditional family ties have been broken and the moral obligation for heirs to provide assistance to their ancestors. And not only that. In modern conditions, the elderly and pensioners not only support their own, but also the families of their children, and even the third generation, ie grandchildren.
Analyzes show that numerous crises have actually reduced pension funds, and pensions as well, as an exercised and acquired right, which in legally regulated systems represent inviolable right, meaning that pensions cannot be questioned, ie reduced, not paid, or redirected to other budget funds. items or expenses. In other words, today pension systems and pensioners on a global level face two problems, namely: reduction of pension rights, ie funds in pension funds, and on the other hand increased need of elderly people, ie pensioners, such as medical needs, need for special nutrition , medicines, consumption of special needs such as recreation, rest, respect and the same treatment with other parts of society.
The paper also deals with the issue of the pension system and pensioners in Serbia. The crisis of the Covid-19 pandemic also contributed to the further deterioration of the status and material security of pensioners. This group has experienced numerous discriminations, restrictions and often deprivation of basic human needs which are guaranteed by the documents of the international community.
The aim of this paper is to address the issue or problem of pension systems at the global level, in order to determine the ranking of successful or quality pension systems, as well as the basic elements on which annual value indices are calculated, as well as the pension system in Serbia.
PROBLEMS OF SCIENTIFIC DEFINITIONS OF DOCUMENT (CONTENT) ANALYSIS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES
The method of document (content) analysis in social sciences is an important factor of a science, scientific knowledge. Scientific knowledge about this scientific method in the methodology of social and political sciences indicates that this is a highly complex and thorough scientific method, with which particular knowledge on social, political and other phenomena and processes is obtained not only from near, but also from distant past. In the existing scientific corpus there is no universal agreement as to the scientific definitions of this scientific method. In logic and methodology, document (content) analysis was unjustifiably considered to be just an assisting tool in the research of particular phenomena and processes.