International Journal of Economics and Law
Volume 8 | No. 22
COMBATING ENVIRONMENTAL CRIME IN THE LEGISLATION AND PRACTICE OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA
Petra Ćalina, Milan Milošević, Ivana Rebrača
The significance of this paper stems from the undeniable fact that the problems of endangering and environmental protection are among the most important problems of contemporary society and the “necessary evil” of the expansive development of science and technology at the beginning of the third millennium. Our society must take measures that will simultaneously raise awareness among all relevant stakeholders on the need for more intensive environmental protection and reform regulations, but also practice, towards the harmonization of our environmental legislation with the legislation of the European Union (acquis communautaire). Accordingly, the aim of this paper is to analyze the existing criminal law norms and the results of their implementation in the judicial practice. The paper analyzes the legal definitions of environmental offenses. An empirical presentation and an analysis of the processing of criminal acts against the environment in the current judicial practice of the Republic of Serbia is given. This statistical analysis is based on specific data from official sources, and is based on the latest statistical data (in the period 2011-2016), so that the number of registered and number of convicted persons for environmental offenses can be realistically considered, the structure of the sanctions imposed convicted of the above-mentioned acts, etc. Special attention was paid to the problems identified in the criminal-environmental protection of the environment in the Republic of Serbia.
INTRODUCTION, CHANGE MANAGEMENT AND TEACHER ATTITUDES
Changes are all around us. And not just now, today, they were present in the past, and they will be stronger and more powerful in the future. Our elementary school has been changing throughout the years and it will yet change in the years to come, but the question is does it follow the changes at the same pace and to the desirable extent? It is still behind the times, the environment and is still part of the changes of the past. It is certain that changes have an impact on our school, they are being daily introduced, but the question is in what way, and how they are accepted by the employees. That is why, beside the constant introduction of changes, knowledge and skills which manage them are highly important. The success of these changes depends also on the attitude of the employees, the very acceptance by the teachers who implement them and their participation in the creation and adoption of the changes. This paper presents a research on teacher’s attitudes towards the changes in an elementary school.
ANALYSIS OF THE BUSINESS OF THE INSURANCE SECTOR IN THE COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE CRISIS
Maja Dimić, Svetislav Paunović, Olja Arsenijević
This paper presents the key indicators of the insurance sector business in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe in the conditions of the global economic crisis, in the period 2007-2012. The authors of this paper work on the assumption that the insurance sector affects the development of the economic and financial system of selected countries in the region of central and eastern Europe (eight countries were analyzed: Serbia, Croatia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Romania, Bulgaria and Albania). With the start of the crisis, the analyzed countries managed to maintain stable growth (or stagnation) of premiums. A higher growth rate was recorded in the life insurance segment. However, unlike developed markets, non-life insurance dominated the portfolio structure, about fifteen times the penetration rate was recorded, as a result of the low level of GDP per capita. According to the criterion of the insurance density, the insurance market in the analyzed countries is lagging behind the developed financial systems, recording several tens of times lower insurance density. Bearing in mind the mentioned facts, we can conclude that the analyzed countries have significant potential for the development of the insurance sector in the future.
DEMOGRAPHIC APPROACH TO ESTIMATION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN RUSSIAN NORTHERN REGIONS
Viktor Fauzer, Andrey Smirnov, Tatyana Lytkina
The article describes the transition of countries and regions to the Concept of Sustainable Development, analyzes the basic UN documents that define the concept and criteria of sustainable development. Demographic indicators highlighted from international systems of sustainable development indicators. They are complemented by indicators that reflect the degree of demographic problems in the Russian North. All northern regions are ranked by the degree of demographic sustainability: critical, low, medium, high. The text concludes that the integral index of demographic sustainability is a new tool for managing the sustainable development of regions.
POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND SECURITY ASPECT OF THE EU WESTERN BALKANS STRATEGY
Following the admission of Croatia to the European Union (2013), there was a delay in its expansion, which was called the “fatigue of enlargement”. Outside the Union are other countries of the Western Balkans and Turkey. Due to overcrowding of its own problems, the EU has laid down the Western Balkans, which has led to the impact of global and regional powers in the region, primarily Russia, the US, China and Turkey. Regarding the fact that Great Britain has begun the process of abandoning the EU, the Union is turning to the Western Balkans and adopting the Strategy for the Western Balkans. This paper analyzes this strategy from the political, economic and security aspects and contributions, both for the EU and for the countries of the Western Balkans. The basic methods used in the research are content analysis and scientific explanation.
ENVIRONMENTAL CRIME PREVENTION THROUGH THE WORK OF COMMUNITY POLICING
Environmental crime leaves broad consequences for environment and sustainable development. Because of the growing presence and danger of environmental crime, it requires an adequate reaction of the society (the state). This paper will point out the possibility of unifying these efforts by applying community policing. This concept is based on the problem oriented policing, it means identifying and analyzing problems and finding of adequate prevention that would be realized through partnership of actors of social reaction with citizens. The main obstacle for higher results is the lack of police officers specialized in this type of crime, as well as the lack of awareness among police officers and citizens about the dangers of environmental pollution. Identified directions of countering environmental crime should be supported by appropriate normative and educational framework, with appropriate material and technical basis, which would create a suitable setting for action within the framework of community policing. Regarding environmental issues, the scientific and professional public should certainly be included. Community policing should be part of a comprehensive, coherent strategy to combat environmental crime
LEGAL SOCIOLOGICAL THOUGHT AGAINST THE CHALLENGES OF GLOBALIZATION
In this article, the author tries to recapitulate the echo of globalization in legal and sociological literature, concluding that legal philosophers are largely neutral regarding the phenomenon of terrorism and terror, warning in their studies of the widespread political and diplomatic practice of turning a deaf ear by states when it comes to the notorious norms of international public law and international relations. The author points out that even the philosophers of the law are note prone of any predictions regarding the apparent violation of international normative norms, not trying to anticipate the fate of law in the circumstances of the absolute power. The sociological theoretical thought, relying on its weight on the postulates of “interpretative sociology”, as well as ethnomethodology as one of the off-springs of this school of thought, also circumvents a thorough analysis of the phenomenon of violence as a postmodern, almost implicit, and therefore a “legitimate” form of modern communication. In this sense, the author sets out the theoretical points of Jean Baudrillard, the French sociologist, philosopher and political scientist, who, making the essential difference between “globalization”, on the one hand, and “mondialization”, on the other, tried to demystify the etiopathological reasons for constituting violence as a specific feature of globalization. The causes of terrorism are seen by Baudrillard in the destruction of universal values that were dissolved in the Mondial, losing any commitment from the perspective of the idea of humanity. The author concludes that the only thing left for human nature is to transform, in the sense of self-knowledge and insight into the actual character of social forces, if it wants to remain free and meaningful, to the extent of the complexity, cleverness and elusiveness as totalitarian consciousness is transformed.
THE ROLE OF THE PROTECTOR OF THE CITIZENS IN PROTECTING PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES
Vesna Stojanović, Bojan Zdravković
The Ombudsman Institute is established by the special law as an independent state body that protects the rights of citizens, controls the work of state bodies, protects the property and property interests of the Republic of Serbia, as well as other institutions and organizations entrusted with public authority. Within the framework of this defined competence, the special activity of the Ombudsman is aimed at indirect or direct protection against discrimination against persons with mental or physical disabilities, which, as a constitutional principle, is proclaimed by the Constitution of the Republic of Serbia. As a special system of organized network of offices covering the entire territory of Serbia, and as an independent and single body, the Protector of Citizens is concerned with the protection and promotion of human rights and no one has the right to influence on his work and conduct. In submitting the report on the work to the competent assembly of the territorial unit, in each calendar year, the achieved results are determined, as well as the activities for achieving of the planned objectives for the next year. In achieving the goals set, one of the most important tasks of the Protector of Citizens is to provide the most powerful legal assistance and support to the citizens in the realization of social and labour protection.
FINANCIAL ANALYSIS IN THE FUNCTION OF THE EXERCISE OF THE SALES ASSORTMENT PLAN
Vukasović L. Dragan, Petrevska B. Ivana
Changes in the market caused by new demands and wishes of consumers are reflected in the assortment, and consequently on the realized revenues of the company from the business. For these reasons, the assortment must be adjusted to adapt to new conditions. The assortment as the content of the production and sales program, has a certain structure that is constantly changing under the influence of various factors. Analysis, study and planning of assortments and its structure are gaining in importance by increasing the number of lines, groups, types and models of products that are produced and sold. The structure of the assortment needs to be defined as from a financial aspect that includes the production and sales assortment of products as well as from the aspect of consumption. Since production and consumption are causally and consequently related to determining the structure of the assortment from a financial point of view, it is enough to start from the fact that it is the same for both production and consumption. A significant parameter of the sales analysis is the analysis of the plan for the realization of the assortment.
CROSS-COMPANY DATA MANAGEMENT AS A STRATEGIC ADVANTAGE – AN EXPLORATORY STUDY
Wanja Wellbrock, Christoph Hein
The perfect technical collection and storage of data does not guarantee companies better information. The focus must be on a pro-active and strategic oriented data management within and between cooperating companies. An information supply chain can ensure a real utility value as long as the semantic limitations are considered. Based on the conceptual development of an corresponding information supply chain model, the evidence and status quo in business practice is assessed by a large-volume empirical study within German companies.
APPLICATION OF VIKOR METHOD IN RANKING THE INVESTMENT PROJECTS
Stefan Zimonjić , Marija Đekić, Edita Kastratović
Investments represent one of the most significant activities in an enterprise. Investing in capital implies the immediate expense for an enterprise with the expected future benefits. These benefits usually last for more than one year. The examples, of such investments are investments in possessions like equipment, buildings and land, as well as introduction of new products, new distribution system or new research and development programme. Enterprises and other project implementers usually face the issue of choosing between different projects which can have various effects in the future. Future success and profitability of an enterprise depend on long-term decisions which are made instantly. This paper presents the way of evaluating the investment projects and comparing the alternative projects based on the dynamic indicators of financial evaluation, by using the compromise ranking method, i.e. multi criteria analysis. It is necessary to find the best and most efficient project by using the Vikor method, as most suitable for the presented issue.