International Journal of Economics and Law
Pursuant to Article 14 of the Rulebook on Categorization and Ranking of Scientific Journals,
the International Journal of Economics and Law is in category M23
Volume 11 | Special Issue
FIGURES OF SPEECH IN PRACTICE – THE PHENOMENON OF TROPES IN NEWSPAPER HEADLINES
This paper deals with the use of rhetorical tropes and their representation in newspaper headlines, ie the analysis of figurativeness in newspaper headlines. The theoretical part of the paper deals with the connection between rhetoric and stylistics. Also, a review of functional styles is given and the journalistic style is defined as a style of public communications used by journalists and publicists writing various daily newspapers, magazines, etc. Then, we deal with newspaper headlines as messages that consist of one or more words that are a key part of a text and that introduce or announce a text. Stylistic figures have also been defined and their classification has been given, which remains unclear and incomplete to this day. A special part of this paper is dedicated to the definition and classification of tropes. The empirical part of the paper deals with research and summarizing the results obtained during the workshop. The starting hypothesis of the research refers to the opinion that metaphor is the most common trope. The corpus of CORD magazine analyzed the representation of rhetorical tropes – more precisely metaphors, metonymy, synecdoche, and irony. The initial hypothesis refers to the view that metaphor is the most common trope, which was confirmed at the end of the research. The research was conducted in the form of a workshop during which 98 examples of tropes were singled out. The percentage of each trope is expressed and the use of tropes in newspaper headlines is illustrated by the most interesting examples.
FORMATION OF SOCIOCULTURAL COMPETENCE OF STUDENTS IN RUSSIAN LANGUAGE TEACHING AT FACULTIES OF NON-PHILOLOGICAL ORIENTATION
Thanks to the expansion of international contacts in the professional sphere today, the role of foreign languages is becoming increasingly important. Knowledge of a foreign language and possession of communicative competence significantly affects the professional sphere of human life and its competitiveness on the labor market. In order for a student to fully master communicative competence, it is necessary to know many cultural elements of a certain country. This paper draws attention to the importance of forming socio-cultural competence during the learning of the Russian language at non-philological faculties, where one of the basic priorities should be the preparation of students for professional communication with representatives of Russian culture. This means that the cultural aspects of the language should be dealt with as much as possible in teaching, in order to enable students to successfully communicate in the sphere of social everyday life and the socio-cultural sphere. Socio-cultural competence implies knowledge of the national-cultural specifics of the communicative behavior of the native speakers of the language being learned and the ability to use the acquired knowledge in order to adapt the behavior to that which is close to the native speaker of the language. Language is a mirror of culture, it contains the knowledge of that people, its mentality, character, way of life, tradition, moral values, worldview. The absence of this competence can lead to significant errors of a socio-cultural nature in intercultural communication. This paper points out how the teaching of foreign languages has transformed over time and how the intercultural approach to teaching prevails today, which means that language and culture are permeated and adopted together. The paper sheds light on the concept of linguo-cultural studies, as a complex discipline that deals with the relationship between language and culture from the standpoint of linguo-didactics. The paper states the necessary elements one needs to know about the culture of the Russian people and how they can be presented in teaching. In addition, this paper considers what should be the goal of teaching linguo-cultural studies at faculties of non-philological profile and how to achieve it in a limited number of lessons. The papert states the principles on the basis of which the teaching material should be chosen, which texts should be used, how important the use of audio-visual means is and which topics, ie areas of culture should be covered in teaching. In addition to the content of teaching and the way of presenting cultural contents, the importance of extracurricular activities and what they can include is also pointed out. For the teaching of linguistic-culturology, it is especially important to adopt linguo-culturally rich units of language, ie lexic. First of all, attention is drawn to the importance of introducing students to the non-equivalent lexic in the Russian language, with the connotations that contain certain lexemes and the lexic of the fon. The paper recommends acquainting students with some important precedent names, statements and texts, and above all with proverbs, sayings and phraseologies that reflect the culture of one language, as well as with national communicative behavior, which include nonverbal communication and routine, common behavior of members of the Russian people and speech etiquette. Knowledge of the rules of speech behavior and speech stereotypes is also of great importance for students. The aim of this paper is to point out the importance of possessing socio-cultural competence in intercultural communication and the importance of including linguistic and cultural elements in the teaching of Russian as a foreign language. In the process of learning a foreign language, students learn about the existence of a different cultural environment, develop critical thinking and broaden their horizons, which makes them more tolerant and makes them grow spiritually and intellectually.
FRENCH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES
This paper tries to clarify the differences between Language for general purposes, Specialised language and Language for specific purposes and its sub-branch French for academic purposes. It offers an explanation on why it would be useful to organise such courses within the universities or their partner institutions. It provides answers to the following questions: who would be in need of such a course, what would be the most useful content, what would be the most effective way to transfer the content and what would be the most adequate supporting material. Preparing the program curriculum is described in five stages and the thematic fields that should be included in such a program are given. The paper also offers examples of both the program curriculum and the exam that can be given at the end of the program. It offers examples of the didactic material that can be included. A transversal approach was applied, the common needs of all were taken into account, outside of a specific discipline, given the fact that language courses are mostly organised by language and language knowledge level, rarely by scientific discipline. It explains how this communication-oriented approach can develop all four competencies (reading, writing, listening and speaking) necessary for effective use of a foreign language in mastering university competencies.
LANGUAGE (TERMINOLOGY) OF PUBLIC NOTARY DURING CERTIFICATION OF REAL ESTATE PURCHASE AGREEMENT IN THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA
With the introduction of the public notary in the legal system of the Republic of Serbia since 2014, numerous rules have changed, especially in legal real estate transactions. The main change in the principle of work of the judiciary in relation to the work of notaries is that notaries enter into the content of the contract and perform numerous checks with various legal mechanisms, while the court only verified the contract, determining the identity of the signatories and considered sales contracts business, without delving into the content of the contract.
It took time for notaries to get used to all these changes, especially the citizens. Understanding the terminology of notaries when certifying contracts requires knowledge and skills that many citizens do not possess. In order to clarify these doubts, the aim of this paper is to clarify the “steps” in verifying a contract on a simple example and to clarify the used terminology.
IMPORTANCE OF CULTURE IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING
Sladjana Mutavdžić Krumov
The aim of foreign language teaching is not only to learn the individuals how to speak target language, but to teach them how to communicate with people of diverse cultures, as well. In order to master foreign language, you need to improve language skills, such as reading, writing, listening and speaking. Can we treat culture as a fifth language skill? The aim of the paper is to give an answer to this question. It deals with cultural concept, including the teacher’s role in development of intercultural competence. The paper focuses on problems caused by insufficient knowledge about other cultures, such as culture shock, stereotypes and prejudice. Question is how teachers can put an accent on intercultural dimensions if they are obliged to follow a set curriculum or programme of study and teach grammar.
TEACHING IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN SERBIA AND THE SURROUNDINGS DURING THE CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC
The appearance of a new virus in 2019 in the Wuhan area in China, which then spread to the rest of the world, endangered the health of the population, but also the economy. Education also could not protect itself from the effects of the COVID-19 virus. Everywhere in the world, teaching in schools had to be adapted to the new situation. Serbia, as well as the countries in the region, tried to maintain continuity in teaching, without denying students the right to education. And the best way for classes to continue to run smoothly was to switch to online learning, that is, distance learning. It was not so easy to apply, due to the many accompanying problems that had to be eliminated along the way. The problems could not be escaped, neither by the professors, nor the students, nor by the parents. The aim of this paper is to show how secondary schools in Serbia and the region managed to overcome the obstacles that arose during distance learning, how successful they were and whether the quality of teaching remained at the same level as before the pandemic.