International Journal of Economics and Law.
Pursuant to Article 14 of the Rulebook on Categorization and Ranking of Scientific Journals,
the International Journal of Economics and Law is in category M23
BASIC DETERMINANTS OF DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS OF SERBIA AND THE USA
Bilateral diplomatic relations between two countries are of exceptional importance for the overall political, economic, technical and technological development of acountry. They have an impact on the cultural, sociological and wider milieu, and sometimesmuch more than that. Namely, those relationships can greatly influence the overall development of a society. This especially applies to relations, when one of these countries plays adecisive role in the determinants of the entire world development and the further direction ofworld social and economic movements. The analysis of bilateral Serbian-American relationsall the more deserves special attention, where the clarification of the historical context ofthose relations can reflect certain trends in the further development of Serbian society itsel,especially, if we take a relatively long period of over one hundred and forty years including alarge number of changes, primarily Serbian statehood. This topic gains its complexity whenall the challenges in that period of its organization from monarchy to republic, throughchanges in the ideological patterns of socialism and liberal capitalism, federative organizationwith a multi-national composition, up to the current status of the Republic of Serbia withautonomous provinces in its composition. In fact, the status of one of them – the provinceof Kosovo – is an open question, not so much for Serbia as for the USA, which in the lastdecade of the last century, in the majority of the Serbian professional and scientific publicis of the opinion that the USA has become the patron of the independence of this entity andone of the the biggest proponents of Kosovo’s independence, especially in the context of itsintegration into the European Union, where the Republic of Serbia sees itself. Today, in theform of a French-German proposal to resolve the status of relations between Belgrade andPristina, the fact that the main initiative is the American side’s, insisting on resolving thestatus of Kosovo within that framework, is becoming increasingly apparent, even thoughthere is a UN Resolution that clearly indicates respect for the principles of international public law regarding respect for the territorial sovereignty of the Republic of Serbia. Thecurrent moment, in which the Ukrainian crisis has united the Western allies to respect thisprinciple on the occasion of the self-declaration of the independence of the Donetsk andLugansk republics, is a definite test for all of them that the principles of public internationallaw regarding the inviolability of territorial integrity and integrity are consistently respectedfor all countries, and not on a selective basis. The role of the USA is extremely importantin this sense, and the task of both the Serbian leadership and the Serbian diplomats is to bethe biggest spokesmen for the principled application of international law. The US-led NATOattack on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1999 was a dangerous precedent in recenthistory. Later, the recognition of Kosovo without the consent of the mother country, startingwith America, and then by most of the countries of the European Union, is another precedentthat already seriously changes the standards. The consequences of this can already be seen inthe secession of several entities without the consent of the mother country, accompanied bywar events, whose the end is hard to predict at this moment. Therefore, the role of the USAhas always been crucial, not only in the world context but also in the current diplomaticrelations with Serbia.
DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL OILSEEDS MARKET IN THE CONDITIONS OF COVID-19
The production of oilseeds (soybeans, sunflowers and oilseed rape) on thedomestic market remains above average with a marked increase in production since 2018,while the area under oilseeds from 2018 remains stable. Compared to the five-year average,the area under oilseeds increased by about 12% in 2020 which contributed to this year’s record.Based on data published in the “Green Book I”, oilseeds in 2020 recorded a slight decline inproduction of 3.4% due to the decline in sunflower yields. Analyzing the time period fromseveral years ago, significant changes have been noticed on the international market, whichare reflected in the fact that the share of vegetable oils as oil products is increasing and themarket price is increasing. In this regard, groups of oilseeds can be determined for whichthere are potential opportunities for export growth in the coming period, such as edibleoil, seed goods and unmodified soybean products. This especially affects highly developedcountries (such as the USA, Canada, Russia, Ukraine…) which have a developed processingindustry, and which, thanks to high productivity, can realize the final, ie on the internationalmarket. more expensive products. According to the projections of the American Ministryof Agriculture, the covid-19 pandemic affected international trade, where a smaller declinein imports and exports was recorded at the international level. In this paper we apply the so-called. exponential trend, which is determined based on a review of the flow chart ofthe obtained data. The rate of change shows us the percentage of increase or decrease ofindividual phenomena with the application of the trend. Based on quantitative statisticalindicators, such as arithmetic mean, coefficient of variation, interval of variation and rateof change, we will present areas, production, yields, imports and exports on both domesticand international oilseeds market in the period from 2019 to 2021.
THE IMPACT OF JOB ANALYSIS ON ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE
It is almost impossible to imagine the modern functioning of an organisationwithout the constant change of jobs and work conditions within the organisation, as wellas adapting to the environment. In short, by analysing a job situation, we determine whatissues need to be changed or adjusted, in what measure and in which aspect.
This thesis includes an analysis of methods and techniques for job analysis and estimatingthe organization’s state, as well as their influence on planning and executing certain organisational changes. There is a display of specific techniques that could be used, an explanationof how to apply them and all phases of the process of managing organizational changes.
The goal of this thesis is to provide insight as to what extent the results from analyzingthe jobs and the state of the organization entail the necessity of executing organizationalchanges, with the aim of boosting the workers’ efficiency and effectiveness at work. Fromthe results gathered through methods and techniques and their comparative analysis, it wasdetermined that they have a great influence on the process of organizational changes.
Nowadays, an organization’s value is not perceived through its standing but ratherthrough its ability to change. Only changes can enable the creation of something new anddifferent. Changes have become an essential part of every modern organisation and are nolonger a continuation of the past.
THE ROLE OF HUMAN RESOURCES IN ACHIEVING COMPETITIVE AND ECONOMIC ADVANTAGE OF AN AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISE
Farming differs from other businesses because it has to do with the constraintsimposed by nature. The Common agricultural policy CAP provides EU citizens with foodsecurity and guarantees that food is safe and produced in an ethical and sustainable way.Direct payments help to keep sustainable farming viable throughout the EU. It does this bysupporting and stabilizing farmers’ incomes, ensuring the longer-term economic viability offarms. In this paper, we will deal with Human Resource Management and how good management of human capital by an agricultural company can achieve a competitive advantagein the market. Through the analytical part and comparative analysis, we will discuss thestandards and goals of the EU and the possibilities of our country to get closer to them. Theway in which human resources are managed becomes a decisive factor in the competitiveness,development and survival of an agricultural enterprise. The methodology will be based onseveral objectives. Books and articles by domestic and foreign authors dealing with agricultureof the Republic of Serbia and EU member states will be analyzed. The comparative analysiswill lead to results that will help the Republic of Serbia to reach standards and strategiesthat it will apply, which will be modeled on the standards of agricultural development of EU countries, thus improving its work and seeing the disadvantages and advantages. Inorder to be able to reach conclusions based on that, which will be important for the furtherdevelopment of agriculture in the Republic of Serbia.
DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AS A PROBLEM OF CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY
Domestic violence is an important global issue and a contemporary societyfaces this serious challenge on a daily basis. Every type of a behaviour where family membersjeopardise each other can be characterised as violence. Studies have shown different types ofdomestic violence: physical, sexual, psychological, economical and passive violence. Victimscan be persons of both sexes and of any age: women, children, the elderly, and, lately, violenceagainst men is on the increase.
Violence against women happens within a family and, in most cases, it remains unreported to the authorities. There are a lot of reasons why women tolerate violence. However,those reasons are usually divided into those referring to subjective feelings of a victim andthose referring to cultural surroundings.
Violence against children involves all types of domestic violence in a family with children.The most frequent types of violence against children are physical, sexual, and emotional.Child neglect is also increasingly present.
Currently, violence against men committed by women is on the increase. A great numberof these cases is recorded during a divorce proceeding.
When it comes to violence against the elderly, all types of violence are present. Due tofragile health conditions of older people, consequences can be very serious.
As a matter of practice, there three main types of abusers: a typical abuser (a seemingly normally socialised person), an abuser with a personality disorder syndrome (thinksthat violence is a normal reaction to a conflict situation) and an abuser with an antisocialpersonality disorder (in most cases they have a confirmed mental illness diagnosis).
The statistics divide the data on victims of violence into types of violence, gender structure and age structure. Psychological violence is most common. It is followed by physical,economic and sexual violence. The largest number of victims are women, but male victimsare also becoming more common.
Victims of violence are mostly adults. When it comes to children, most victims are under the age of fourteen.
In the Republic of Serbia, the problems of violence are dealt with by the Criminal code,the Criminal procedure code, the Family law, the Law on Police, the Domestic Violence Prevention Act which includes determining the level and type of the imminent violence threat, the means of law application and the application of different regulations. This law defines the authorities of the state bodies and institutions.
The problems of violence should be spoken about more often and without hesitation. The intervention should be quick and direct. The community should support and help all the victims of domestic violence.
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND THE LEGAL PROFESSION BETWEEN COOPERATION, COMPETITION AND CONFRONTATION
Humanity has stepped into a new era, exciting, fascinating and terrifying. Onecould say revolutionary. Until now, man has thought about artificial intelligence, and nowartificial intelligence has started to reason about man. It even tries to get into his psyche andencode his emotions. It has been recognizing people by their appearance, voice and way ofspeaking for a long time. It monitors them electronically, knows their intimacy, preferences,aspirations and interests. It penetrated, faster than anyone expected and deeper than couldbe imagined, into all spheres of public and private life, from the media, through medicine,education, finance, energy, production and insurance, to traffic, sports and ecology. Of course,it could miss the legal profession either: the legal profession, the judiciary, the state administration and the legislature. AI has begun to transform that area as well, encroaching on allthe tasks immanent in this activity – research, counseling, writing documents, representation,processing, adjudication and so on. Faced with artificial intelligence, the legal professionis faced with a major challenge. The dilemma is to what extent and how to use the toolsof artificial intelligence, without jeopardizing the basic rights of people and parties to the proceedings, how to avoid that justice and ethics do not succumb to the speed of work andsavings that these tools bring, and finally, whether society in general should and may delegatethe function of a judge to a creation that exists only in cyberspace (for now) and cannot beheld accountable and subject to criminal law. The application of artificial intelligence toolswill have both positive and negative effects on the legal profession. There will be less work forpeople and more for machines. The interests and needs of the participants themselves in allkinds of legal traffic will intertwine, supplement, but in some areas they will differ when itcomes to the attitude towards the engagement of artificial intelligence systems. This relationwill range from cooperation, through competition, to confrontation. In order to clarify someof the above-mentioned dilemmas, in this paper we investigated the following questions: (a)what are the basic difficulties in defining artificial intelligence, (b) is artificial intelligencecapable of obtaining a law degree and passing the first court exam, (c) which AI tools havealready found application in the legal profession; (d) can AI be a legal representative of aparty (barrister), (e) what effects will the first court judgment written by the “hand” of theChatGPT-4 system in Colombia have and other important issues of importance for theapplication of artificial intelligence in the legal industry and the judiciary as a whole. Bystudying extensive foreign literature and practice in a number of countries, we came to thebelief that artificial intelligence tools will continue to play a significant role in jobs such aslegal analysis, researching laws and regulations, finding documents and arguments, predictingthe possible outcome of a dispute or the behavior of suspects before, during and after thecourt process. Such application of these tools will lead to a reduction in litigation costs, to afaster and more cost-effective resolution of disputes and to the facilitation of work in the legalprofession. That is why many law offices, lawyers and numerous employees in the judiciarywill be interested in obtaining the most modern and effective artificial intelligence tools. Indoing so, they will have to take care that efficiency and speed do not suppress justice. Asfor the engagement of artificial intelligence in court proceedings, it is most likely that it willmainly be used to perform less complex tasks and resolve disputes of lesser value, disputesrelated to private contracts and cases resolved by tribunals (administrative and labor disputes,etc.). It is unlikely, at least in Western countries, that these tools will have any significant rolein the work of the highest judicial instances, such as the Supreme Court, the High Court orthe Constitutional Court. There the right to make decisions will remain with the individualjudge and the judicial panel. It is not yet possible to assess with certainty whether one dayartificial intelligence will acquire the status of a subject of law and in what form, as wellas whether futuristic announcements about the potential symbiosis of man and artificialintelligence will one day lead to artificial intelligence wearing a judge’s robe. In conclusion,the authors reinforece the thesis that despite the differences and ambiguities surroundingthe legal regulation of artificial intelligence, its spread and penetration into the judiciary areunstoppable. But this whole relationship must be strictly regulated and predictable, subjectto laws, imbued with ethics and intended for the benefit of humanity. The more we hesitateon that front, the more severe the consequences will be, because the judiciary is one of thefoundations of any social order and a mirror of its democratic development.