Vol 13 | No. 39

International Journal of Economics and Law.

Pursuant to Article 14 of the Rulebook on Categorization and Ranking of Scientific Journals,
the International Journal of Economics and Law is in category M23



Volume 13 | No. 39

December 2023


Ratomir Antonović
Teodora Živadinović

Europe is today exposed to numerous security challenges. The permanentinflux of migrant population represents a very high security challenge, which primarilythreatens the European population. Strong barriers to entry into the European Union,placed at the borders of Hungary and Croatia, hinder the flow of migrants, but on theother hand, they enable various illegal and impermissible ways of crossing state borders,open opportunities for human trafficking and also contribute to additionaldestabilization in the depth of the territory of the European Union.
Who are the migrants, where do they come from and with what motives, is an essentialquestion. How much do migrants imply in certain security risk situations in the EuropeanUnion and do they abuse the difficult security situation that occurred on the Asian andAfrican continents to place their “warriors” on European soil to wage religiously motivatedwars against the Christian population. These are fundamentally important issues facing theEuropean Union today and they are the most important security risks.
For the purposes of the research presented in this paper, a security assessment was madein one European country, Austria, in a given time frame and in a location that is consideredthe most critical in terms of the overall security of the local population. Taking into accountthat Austria is a good benchmark and indicator of the situation in the whole of Europe, be-cause since the beginning of the migrant processes, it has received a large number of migrantpopulations from all over the world and provided them with a good shelter.
Austria can rightfully be classified in the category of more regulated European countries,both in terms of the standard of living of citizens, in terms of the social rights of citizens, andin terms of the degree of protection of human and civil rights. However, Austria is facing serious problems of a security nature, which is significantly contributed by precisely thatmigrant population, which successfully reaches Austrian cities. The picture that can be seenin Austria today is devastating from the security point of view, because whole gangs, mostlymade up of migrants from Asia and partly from Africa, dominate bus and train stations,streets and entire neighborhoods. The Austrian population often feels unsafe, and whenobserving the field, from direct contacts with the local population, the authors of the paperlearned that some residents of neighborhoods experienced concrete physical attacks frommigrant criminal structures.




Nataša Đurić

English for specific purposes (ESP) implies teaching the English language tonon-native speakers who need to communicate in a specific professional, cultural or aca-demic setting. It is characterised by a highly student-centred approach with great emphasison providing tuition according to students’ individual needs and an increased pressure toprovide fast results. It also involves very specific lexical sets and grammatical structures, anawareness of the levels of formality, and intercultural communication. Most importantly,there is the need for simulating real-life situations in order for the target language to beacquired in a relevant context, which in turn requires active participation and receivingconstructive feedback in real time.
The demand for ESP tuition is constatnly rising in the ever-changing world of today.Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, most types of teaching have moved onlinewith the use of videoconferencing and the advancement of educational technology (edtech).The trend continues long after the end of the pandemic, as people’s habits and preferenceshave apparently changed irrevocably. There is now a large number of online English coursesavailable, and ESP is no exception. The advantages of online learning include reduced costs,freedom from geographical and physical constraints, flexibility and the possibility of self-paced learning. On the other hand, there are numerous challenges of online learning andteaching. They include digital literacy and technical issues, reliability and validity of testing,lack of non-verbal communication, perceived isolation, reduced motivation, distractions,insufficient student engagement, challenges of providing relevant feedback, time managementissues, etc. All of these challenges apply to online ESP teaching, with the addition of the lackof opportunities for real-life simulations in real time in the case of self-paced learning andthe pressure to provide fast results that are manifested through measurable outcomes.
This paper provides a historical overview of the development of ESP and its continouslyincreasing importance with special emphasis on English for professional purposes; a critical review of the recently published literature that treats challenges of online ESP learning andteaching; and finally, it offers solutions to the stated issues and challenges. These solutionsmay be applicable to teaching any language for specific purposes online.




Jelena Golijan
Dragan Golijan

Constitutions are complex and substantively important documents, and atthe same time they contain necessary characteristics that are a reflection of the existing typeof society, that is a constitution is an act of state, the highest normative – legal regulation,which is a fundamental law, but also a declarative act and an ideological political act. TheConstitution is also the highest legal act of the state, since the Constitution determines the legalforce of other general legal acts. Today, the constitutional development of Serbia does not lagbehind the strongest contemporary constitutional development of other countries. We couldsay that the constitutional beginning and development begins with Dušan’s code in 1349. Theaforementioned constitution contains a number of constitutional elements, and in Dušan’sempire there was no higher law than the aforementioned Code. Other, later constitutionsof Serbia as an independent state were encompased by the growth of human rights. In thiscontext, this paper will focus precisely on the beginning of constitutionalism in the Republicof Serbia, but also on other later constitutions that were conditioned by the socio-economiccircumstances in which they existed. A comparative-legal analysis can be used to perform acomparative-legal review of the constitutions in Serbia in relation to other constitutions thatappeared at a certain time. This also applies to contemporary constitutional orders in thecountries of the European Union, Russia, and other countries in relation to constitutionalityin the Republic. Serbia. This paper presents the view that a change to the constitution as thehighest legal act in a certain state can be expected, when it no longer has its purpose, that is, when it becomes a brake and a limiting element in itself, being in contradiction with thesocial circumstances in which it exists. Apart from this, our goal is to present the basic andfundamental characteristics of the development of constitutionalism in the Republic of Serbia.




Tatjana Milojević
Božidar Forca

Since its existence, man, his communities and the environment have beenthreatened by various threats, which modern security studies basically divide into militaryand non-military. For a long time, and rightly so, war was considered the greatest threatto security, especially if you take into account the two world wars and the current war inUkraine. However, non-military threats to security are multiplying more and more and inmodern conditions they are increasingly endangering humanity and the planet Earth.
This paper mainly deals with non-military security threats. The main goal of the work isto point out the consequences of non-military threats to security in modern conditions. Thisis primarily due to the fact that non-military threats to security with drastic consequences arebecoming more frequent, and the response of the international community is not adequate.Hence, the basic hypothesis from which the research started is as follows: The internationalcommunity does not have a unique approach to the prevention of non-military threats tosecurity, which increases the negative consequences they entail.
In reaching the goal and confirming the hypothesis, the primary methods used were: content analysis and case studies.
The work was created against the background of the first author’s graduation thesis and the co-author’s many years of dealing with security issues. The diploma thesis of the first author was successfully defended at the Faculty of Business Studies and Law in 2023.




Milena Milosavljevic Stevic

In this paper, we will show how nationalisms and nations work and exist.Through the analysis, we will determine the variations within these concepts on a theoreticaland practical level. The emergence of modern nation-states managed to eliminate the negativeconnotation of the term nationalism. Nevertheless, on the territory of the former Yugoslavia,nationalism was manifested in the most extreme and politicized form, which caused nationalconflicts. Bearing this in mind, in the paper we will show the Janus face of nationalism, witha clear distinction between the old nation states that arose in Western and Central Europeand the new nation states that arose on the soil of the former socialist republics.




Marija Milovanović
Milan Glišović

The term international relations dates back to the end of the 18th century. Inthose relations, other states were also key, although not the only subject. At a certain levelof development of international relations, a relatively stable international order is created,which, from a historical point of view, is classified as unipolar, bipolar or multipolar. Theaforementioned classification is primarily determined by the relationship of world powers toglobal international relations. In the competition of world powers for their own positioningin the world order, one of the primary activities was the remaining arms race.
The main goal of this paper is to prove that the creation of the latest world order is un-derway, which results in a new arms race dictated by the world powers, primarily the USAand Russia, and which is transferred to the rest of the world. The arms race is especiallyevident after Russia’s aggression against Ukraine in 2022. The basic hypothesis from whichthe research started is as follows: The arms race is a direct consequence of the creation of anew world order. The first auxiliary hypothesis reads: The arms race is dictated by worldpowers, primarily the USA, Russia and China. The second auxiliary hypothesis reads: Thearms race is particularly evident in the countries of Europe.
Scientific methods, primarily comparative, content analysis and case studies, wereused in the research to achieve the goal and confirm the stated hypotheses. The results of thediploma thesis of the first-mentioned author were used in the preparation of the paper. Thethesis was defended at the Faculty of Business Studies and Law in 2023.




Anđela Mitrović
Goran Župac

This paper mainly deals with the state of organized crime and corruption inthe Republic of Serbia. The main goal of the work is to show the state of organized crimeand corruption in Serbia and point out the need to take measures to reduce them to a tol-erable level, as seen by the theory of crisis management, i.e. crisis management. The basichypothesis from which the research started is: Strategy for the fight against corruption forthe period 2023-2028. year is a possible way to fight against corruption and it should beadopted as soon as possible, and on the basis of it approach the strategic direction of thefight against corruption.
In reaching the goal and confirming the hypothesis, the primary methods used were: content analysis and case studies.
The work was partly created against the background of the graduate work of the first author and the co-author’s many years of dealing with the issue of crisis management. The diploma thesis of the first author was successfully defended at the Faculty of Business Studies and Law in 2023




Ljupka Petrevska
Miloš Grujić
Slobodan Pešević

This comprehensive study delves into the intricate relationship betweentechno-logical advancement, innovations, and their impact on the development offinancial markets (FD index), Human Development Index (HDI), and Gross DomesticProduct (GDP) per capita. The fundamental inquiry driving this research is: “How does thelevel of technology and innova-tions influence the market development index, the HumanDevelopment Index, and GDP per capita?” This study aims to examine how technology andstrategies affect important economic indicators. It asks if following the same digital andinnovation strategies as specific countries could help improve the financial market, makepeople happy, and increase GDP per capita.
This study employed regression analysis, with help from research and theory, to come upwith conclusions. This is an inductive approach, so conclusions are not necessarily absolute.The findings underscore a pressing need for financial intermediaries in developing nations toreimagine their business models and swiftly adapt to the dynamic landscape of technologicalevolution. The research illuminates a critical nexus between advancements in digitizationand tangible outcomes in the realms of economy and finance. It serves as a clarion call,emphasizing the paramount importance of agile responses to rapid technological shifts forensuring enduring and sustainable development.
The study’s implications reverberate across diverse sectors of society. By elucidatingthe intricate dynamics between technological progress and economic metrics, this researchequips policymakers, financial institutions, and businesses with invaluable insights. Theseinsights are indispensable for crafting strategic initiatives, fostering innovative ecosystems,and steering nations toward robust financial health, enhanced human development, andheightened GDP per capita.
This research shows how technology can help improve financial and societal progress in developing nations. By embracing a culture of adaptability and harnessing the trans-formative power of innovation, countries can navigate the complexities of the modern era with resilience and agility. The findings serve as a catalyst for future research endeavors, encouraging scholars and practitioners to delve deeper into the multifaceted interplay be-tween technology, finance, and human development. As societies stand at the crossroads of unprecedented technological proliferation, this study offers a roadmap, illuminating the pathtoward a future where technology catalyzes holistic and sustainable advancement, fosteringa world marked by equitable prosperity and enduring progress.




Aleksandra Podnar

The global pandemic of COVID-19 has significantly changed our lives, andmostly doctors because of their direct participation in the management of the pandemic.The COVID-19 pandemic has had an extremely large impact on many aspects of healthcare. Doctors, who, more than the rest of the population infected with COVID, were in asituation where they were faced with the pandemic 24 hours a day, seven days a week, werefaced with fatigue and exhaustion. Physician burnout and oversaturation can lead to de-creased patient care, increased medical errors, and poor health. Oversaturation of frontlinehealthcare workers has become a major problem during the pandemic. On the other hand,doctors working in preclinical departments had a lack of interaction with patients, withoutmuch clinical professional work, i.e. they were faced with the fact that profession and workexperience did not have a significant impact on the final outcomes in the treatment of thoseinfected with COVID. Total workload and work during both the first and second waveswere positively correlated with exhaustion. Factors that had a decisive influence on the levelof stress for doctors were lack of knowledge and excessive responsibility, workload andwork environment, ethical stress, organization and teamwork. Also, during the first waveof the pandemic, doctors who worked with COVID patients were faced with the fact thatthey were working without adequate protective equipment, which included masks, visors,gloves and protective overalls, which, in addition to all the previously mentioned facts andcircumstances, represented maybe even the biggest pressure. This paper aims to describethe level of stress that medical workers were faced with and the impact of their exhaustionon possible errors during the treatment of patients during the SARS CoV-2 pandemic.




Slobodan Šegrt
Sanja Šegrt
Branka Marković
Dragan Vučinić

Almost all theoretical and practical achievements in the field of economicscience, as well as the development of information technology and management, nowadaysdirect the efforts of market participants to achieve the best possible business results.
In general, these efforts are in line with the development tendencies of modern economic thought and adequate forms of business that strive for greater profit.
For highly sophisticated economic systems, it is important to implement the objectively best and proven, in theory and practice, high-quality business processes. In addition, a well-designed and thought-out management is necessary, an approach that is a prerequisite for conducting a consistent economic policy, which creates the conditions for economical and profitable use of all factors of production and services.
Modern management functions on the assumption that an economically sustainable environment, in which market participants operate, does not disturb the comprehensive transformation of business and enables the application of more modern technologies, as well as the use of adequate economic models and methods. Such an economic environment should create a business climate that stimulates the use of technical-technological and busi-ness advantages, as well as good positioning on the market.
Surveying customers, suppliers, experts or consultants is a good tool for checking the adequacy of the company’s strategy and, as a feedback loop, provides the company’s man- agement with information that it can use as a corrective to set business goals. The results of the statistical analysis in this scientific paper regarding the development of sustainable transport and logistics service systems represent support for the scientific team that is preparing a monograph in this area of the field, and also an instrument for evaluating the hypotheses.




Jovo Vučković

This article contains several reflections on the intelligence service as a sys-tem in itself, but also as an inseparable part of the state and a factor of its statehood. Inthe processing of this work, domestic experiences were treated, as well as opportunities inneighboring countries and beyond. Treating “service” as a part of the political system andespecially studying it in a scientific sense is relatively recent. In the past (France – Fouchet;Soviet Union – Beria et al. ed.) the “service” was not only mystified, but often slandered, andnot infrequently there was political reckoning with the heads of certain intelligence services.The basis for such a scientific and qualified approach to the “services” and analyzing theirwork, but also leaving it for “public inspection”, as far as possible, was made possible by thecurrent resources of the political organization of each state in particular, as well as the legaland social regulations within each States. After the collapse of the “Warsaw Pact” in Yugo-slavia, more precisely in the states created by its dissolution, the name of the service SDB,RDB – no longer made sense, that is, it carried with it a series of hidden digressions and evendangers. In order to prevent this from happening and to explain primitive and maliciousremarks, the services were given professional and neutral names and one could always say:“We are a service of the state.” Here is the information for you as external users, so do whatyou want with them”! Towards the end of the twentieth century, as a result of radical geo-strategic changes, which implied many transformations of security systems throughout theplanet Earth, there was also a “repackaging” of the meaning of the term security. Essentially,important changes related to the security sector are happening in several directions – on theglobal level, in the countries of the region/surroundings and in the areas of our former state.